The Skinny on RAW FOODS & How They Heal Your Body
The Skinny on Raw Foods & How They Heal the Body
To read my magazine article Superfoods for Super Health, click HERE.
Raw food diets have become trendy in recent years, with hip raw cafes opening up in stylish neighborhoods throughout the U.S. and the world. Ironically, though, even as young "hipsters" frequent such establishments, the raw diet itself is one of the most ancient ways of eating you could find − just think of early man foraging the land for raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Our bodies originally evolved with a diet that was totally unprocessed and uncooked.
It was my grandmother who first introduced me as a teenager to the value of emphasizing raw foods in my diet. I guess she was "hip" before her time! She used to say this to me often: Health comes from the farm, not the pharmacy. My wise grandmother taught me that eating a diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables promoted radiant health and also encouraged me to eschew meat and animal products, which I have done for decades. Today, raw diets are often of the vegan variety, although not exclusively. Some raw dieters also eat unpasteurized dairy foods and even raw eggs, meat, and fish. However, in this article, I'll be focusing primarily on the benefits of eating raw vegan foods, since most of the research on the topic involves plant-based diets.
So, what exactly is a "raw" food or a "living" food? How high can a food be heated and still considered raw? Are there benefits or risks to a raw food diet? In this talk, I'll answer questions about all of the raw diet basics. In addition, for those who are already following or are familiar with a raw diet, I'll share the latest, eye-opening research on the topic. Finally, I'll direct you to some delicious raw recipes that newbies and seasoned dieters alike will enjoy!
The Rationale for Raw Diets
The modern raw food movement got its start in the 1800s. In 1839, Sylvester Graham − an American preacher who was an early proponent of vegetarian diets and the man for whom the graham cracker was named − wrote that eating only uncooked foods was the key to health and longevity and could even guard against spiritual ills (Vegetarian-Nutrition.Info). Being a preacher, Graham drew some of his rationale from the Bible, referring to Adam and Eve as the “first family.” He wrote that according to Genesis, "The food of the first family…was fruits, nuts, farinaceous [starchy] seeds and roots, some milk, and maybe some honey” (Davis and Melina). He proposed that a raw, Eden-like diet allowed people to live in concert with nature and thereby liberate themselves of health concerns (The Free Library).
Graham didn't know what vitamins were, but in the early 1900s, the American naturopath Herbert Shelton was a booster of raw diets because he believed that “cooking food not only robs it of its vital nutrients, but also turns it into a toxic mess” (Raw Life Coaching). He espoused a philosophy of "natural hygiene," which involved a diet of raw fruits, vegetables, and nuts for optimum health.
Today, these early raw food rationales continue to underlie the motivation for following a raw vegan diet. Modern proponents argue that cooking destroys nutrients, enzymes, and the “life force” of the food itself (UC Health).
Enzymes: The Raw, The Cooked, and The Living
Those who follow a raw food diet strive to consume foods that are richest in nutrients and enzymes. So, what exactly are enzymes? Enzymes are complex proteins that are important for all bodily functions. They're catalysts for innumerable metabolic processes, from energy production to oxygen absorption to inflammation reduction. There are three different categories of enzymes: digestive enzymes, which are present in the saliva, stomach, and small intestine; metabolic enzymes, which are within our cells; and food-based enzymes, which we must consume through our diets. If we are deficient in any of these enzymes, it can lead to chronic disease. Without sufficient digestive enzymes, our bodies won't be able to break down food so that the body can make use of nutrients. Insufficient dietary and/or digestive enzymes may lead to reduced availability of metabolic enzymes, setting the stage for chronic inflammation, compromised immunity, and gastrointestinal disturbance (Mercola.com).
In other words, it's good to consume as many enzymes and other nutrients as possible! So, how can you eat foods in a state − raw, cooked, living? − that makes the greatest number of enzymes available? It turns out that it depends, and there are many approaches to the answer.
The raw food movement pins its approach on the findings of Dr. Edward Howell, a famous enzyme researcher who, in the 1940s, experimented with the temperatures at which raw and cooked foods have optimized enzymes. His results indicated that enzymes are most active when a food is warmed no higher than 115 degrees. When the temperature is too high, enzymes are degraded, while when the temperature is too low, their action potential is decreased (meaning that room temperature vegetables are preferable to refrigerated ones). For this reason, a food is thought to be raw until it is heated to 115-118 degrees − there is some disagreement as to the precise number.
However, modern researchers have shown that the reality is more complex than Howell's conclusions. For some vegetables, the cooking process destroys key nutrients. Spinach is an example − cooking it leads to the loss of 2/3 of its vitamin C. For other vegetables, the cooking process actually enhances the availability of the food's nutrients. For example, uncooked tomatoes actually have lower lycopene content than cooked tomatoes. In still other cases, it's a toss-up. When you boil carrots, for instance, their carotenoid levels are increased but their polyphenols are degraded. That may explain why raw food dieters in one study were found to have higher levels of beta-carotene but lower levels of lycopene in their blood than non-raw-food dieters (Garcia et al.).
Another thing to keep in mind is that, overall, cooking breaks down the thick cell walls of many plants, which may help to release the nutrients stored within. Also, there are some plants that are considered "living foods" as opposed to raw foods. For example, the enzymes in many raw seeds, nuts, and grains are thought to be dormant until they are activated by "sprouting," a process in which they are soaked in water for a period of time. Once the nuts, seeds, or grains begin to sprout, their enzymes become active, making them a "living food" (KrisCarr.com). Some people also consider fermented foods such as raw sauerkraut to be living foods (Living-Foods.com); the fermentation process imparts many beneficial probiotic organisms essential for healthy digestion.
As you can see, there are numerous approaches to what defines a raw food diet. Some advocate eating strictly raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Others also include dehydrated fruits and vegetables, raw honey, and cacao. Still others believe that select cooked, sprouted, and fermented foods − whose nutritional profiles improve through these processes − are an important addition to a primarily raw diet.
Health Benefits of a Raw Diet: How It Makes Us Feel
Regardless of how strict your definition of "raw" is, there is no denying that consuming a great deal of raw fruits and vegetables has nutritional benefits. Such a diet is high in minerals, fiber, phytochemicals, and vitamins − especially vitamins B and C, which can get zapped during cooking. Numerous studies have pointed to the benefits of consuming abundant fruits and vegetables as part of a conventional diet; such consumption has been linked to lower risk of cancer, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.
Unfortunately, the scientific literature on the health benefits of a strictly raw, plant-based diet is rather limited. Not very many studies have examined the long-term effects of the diet, and the ones that have been published have primarily come from Europe (The Vegetarian Resource Group). At the same time, the data we do have is notable.
In one study conducted with Finnish subjects following a raw vegan diet, the results showed that they consumed significantly higher amounts of dietary antioxidants than a comparison group following a cooked, omnivorous diet. The raw vegans took in the following percentages of vitamins on a daily basis: 305% of the US recommended daily allowance of vitamin C, 247% of vitamin A, 313% of vitamin E, 92% of zinc, and 120% of copper. In addition, compared with omnivores, the raw vegans had significantly higher blood concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E (Rauma et al.). This more favorable antioxidant profile could have various positive effects on the body, given that antioxidants protect cells from oxidative damage, provide immune support, and benefit the eyes, heart, prostate, and more.
In another study conducted with American subjects, adherents to a vegan diet comprised of approximately 55% unheated foods self-reported improvements in health and quality of life after adoption of the diet. These included improvements in physical functioning, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. Also, as compared to mean nutrient intakes of people in the United States (as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), intakes of fiber, vitamins A, B6, C, and E, folate, copper, and potassium were significantly higher in the vegan group. At the same time, however, it should be noted that intakes of protein, total and saturated fat, cholesterol, vitamin B12, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc were significantly lower (Donaldson 2001).
Even while raw vegan diets contain higher levels of many nutrients than the standard American diet, they also tend to be lower in calories, so it is unsurprising that raw vegan diets are associated with significant weight loss. In a study of more than 500 people who followed a raw food diet for nearly four years, researchers found that body weight decreased as percentage of daily calories from raw food increased (Koebnick et al.). In another study, researchers compared 18 people on a strict raw food diet with 18 on a typical American diet. After four years, body mass index and mid-section fat were lower among those in the raw food group than those in the other group (Fontana et al.).
There are multiple benefits to maintaining a healthy weight, including keeping blood pressure in check. In one study of hypertensive patients, the majority of whom were overweight, a diet of approximately 62% raw foods led to statistically significant weight loss as well as decreases in mean diastolic blood pressure (Douglass et al.).
In a study of fibromyalgia patients, the majority of whom were initially overweight, those following an exclusively raw vegan diet experienced numerous benefits compared to omnivorous controls. Not only did the raw vegan dieters experience relief of fibromyalgia symptoms − including pain, joint stiffness, and quality of sleep − but they also exhibited a significant reduction in body mass index, total serum cholesterol, and sodium levels (Kaartinen, et al.).
Those with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis seem especially to benefit from raw vegan diets. In a study of individuals with one of these two diseases, patients ate a strictly raw vegan "living food" diet (that included germinated seeds and sprouts). Both groups experienced a decrease in joint stiffness and pain as well as self-reported improvement in overall health (Hanninen et al). In another study of rheumatoid arthritis sufferers, a raw vegan diet was also shown to significantly reduce serum total and LDL-cholesterol (Agren et al.). A third study of rheumatoid arthritis patients showed that raw vegan "living food" diets rich in probiotic bacteria (lactobacilli) have a positive impact on the composition of the fecal microflora, which is associated with improvements in rheumatoid arthritis (Peltonen et al).
The beneficial effects of a raw vegan diet on gut microflora are not limited to rheumatoid arthritis sufferers. In a study in which subjects shifted from a conventional diet to a raw vegan diet and then back again, results suggested that the raw vegan diet caused a decrease in bacterial enzymes and certain toxic products that have been implicated in colon cancer risk (Ling and Hanninen).
Thus, even though the body of research on raw vegan diets is limited, the data are promising. As a whole, these studies reveal that such diets are nutrient-packed, promote healthy weight loss, reduce cholesterol and blood pressure, and impart a greater sense of overall wellness to the participants. The fact that fibromyalgia and rheumatoid patients obtain so many benefits from the raw vegan diet is promising, as is the potential to reduce colon cancer vis-à-vis a healthier composition of the gut microflora. Clearly, more high-quality research on the topic is needed!
Even while raw vegan diets have so many promising benefits, there are a few potential risks to consider. As mentioned previously, while raw vegans have greater concentrations of certain nutrients in their blood, they do run the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In one study, individuals who followed a primarily raw vegan diet for 23-49 months were found to have abnormally low vitamin B12 concentrations (Donaldson 2000). It's recommended that those following a raw vegan diet over the long term should include a reliable source of the vitamin in their diets. Raw dieters should also take care to make sure they have adequate dietary sources of protein.
Another thing to consider is that raw vegan adherents are more at risk of dental erosion. One study found increased risk of dental erosion − from chewing so much raw produce! − in subjects who had followed an uncooked vegan diet for a minimum of 39 months (Ganss).
Finally, because starting a raw vegan diet can lead to a significant reduction in body weight, women run the risk of amenorrhea. In one study, 30% of women under 45 who were on a long-term raw vegan diet had partial to complete amenorrhea (Koebnick et al.).
Anti-Aging: How Raw Foods Make Us Look
On the whole, aside from the cautions above, a diet of abundant raw fruits and vegetables has many promising benefits for the body, as previously discussed. So we know how raw produce makes us feel...but how does it make us look?
I'm sure you've seen someone who seems to look 20 years younger after adopting a raw vegan diet. Is that just your imagination, or is there some scientific basis to the association between a raw diet and quality aging?
In fact, there is. Scientists have noted that premature aging is related to inflammatory states in the body. Poor-quality foods such as sugars, processed carbohydrates, and processed and fatty meats can cause inflammation and damage to the skin's collagen, a substance which keeps the skin supple and resists wrinkles (WebMD). It stands to reason, then, that a diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables − which fight inflammation − would promote quality aging and radiant, youthful skin.
Also, it is known that some cooking methods, including broiling, frying, hot-oven roasting, grilling, and barbecuing, can lead to the formation of advanced glycation end-products, or glycotoxins, in certain foods. Glycotoxins are known to increase inflammation in the body. Proteins, fats, and foods high in fructose that are cooked, heated, or processed at high temperatures are loaded with glycotoxins. On the other hand, fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, raw nuts, and other unprocessed, unrefined foods have low levels of glycotoxins. Eating raw foods and preparing foods at temperatures less than 250 degrees help limit your exposure to glycotoxins and related inflammatory states that can lead to premature aging (Life Extension Magazine).
Additionally, as noted previously, those on a raw vegan diet eat a great deal more antioxidants than those on a standard American diet. It is widely thought that wrinkles, loss of elasticity, and other markers of aging skin are caused by free radical damage to skin cells due to ultraviolet exposure, poor diets, environmental pollution, and more. Antioxidants work to protect cells from free radical damage; thus, it stands to reason that raw vegans would enjoy numerous skin benefits as well. Following a diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables, along with other health practices including regular exercise and stress management, can make us look as great as we feel.
Raw Diets and Detox
After learning about all the benefits of a raw vegan diet, you may be wondering if it's right for you but may be hesitant about fully taking the plunge. In that case, you might want to start out with a raw food "detox" − a short-term (3 day to 3 week) period in which you commit to eating primarily raw plant-based foods. This notion of approaching raw diets as a "cleanse" is gaining popularity.
The aim of detox diets is to take a break from the overload of fats, sugars, and toxins rampant in the standard, omnivorous American diet. Over time, a poor diet can cause the digestive system and filtering organs such as the kidneys and liver to become exhausted and overburdened. Detoxing allows the body to take a rest.
Since raw vegetables are low in calories, have little to no fat, and have no added sugars, they do not add toxins to the body. They are also loaded with fiber, which mops up toxins and waste products in the digestive tract for healthy elimination. In addition, because vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, they support the body with potent nutrition during the cleanse.
After a few days or a few weeks on a raw vegan detox diet, you may be feeling so great that you decide to make it more than just a temporary thing!
What to Eat? Smoothies and Going Raw Year-Round
For many, the challenges of eating a raw diet and making it consistently appealing may be a deterrent to adopting it. It can be difficult to find raw options on restaurant menus. It's easy enough to pop some raw carrots or apple slices in your mouth but trickier to prepare a well-rounded meal. Sprouting seeds, germinating nuts, and dehydrating and fermenting vegetables can be a time-intensive proposition. Plus, in the cold of winter, you might be craving a hot, hearty meal that requires heating things beyond 118 degrees.
Two of my sure bets for beating the raw food doldrums are my juicer and blender. Smoothies are a fantastic way to quickly and deliciously blend raw fruits, veggies, nut butters, herbs, and other ingredients into a portable, satisfying meal. You can add phytonutrient-rich greens, berries, flax seeds, and avocado to power you through the morning or afternoon.
Along with the other raw-food nutritional supplements mentioned up to, I also add BLUE MAJIK to my water, juices, teas, and smoothies on a daily basis. I've taken this organic AquaBotanical for years and highly recommend it. Whether you take it in powder or capsule form, this pure, 100% raw phycocyanin superfood will help heal you from head to toe and support all the cells in your body.
If a smoothie is too chilly to enjoy in the cold weather, don't despair. The creativity of raw vegan recipes is growing. You might pick up a cookbook like Choosing Raw by Gena Hamshaw for fall and winter ideas like acorn squash bisque, vegan shepherd's pie, or sweet potato chickpea burgers. Or, try a few of my personal favorite recipes from my own cookbooks, including The Healing Power of NatureFoods (all raw-food recipes), Health Bliss (over 40 delicious, all-raw Green Smoothie recipes) and Recipes for Health Bliss (full color cookbook with beautiful photos and over 250 recipes; 75% of them are raw). As well, there’s lots of additional, detailed information on raw foods in my book Walking on Air: Your 30-Day Inside and Out Rejuvenation Makeover and The Joy Factor: 10 Sacred Practices for Radiant Health.
Clearly, raw vegan diets have come a long way since the Garden of Eden. We now know of the myriad health benefits of raw fruits and vegetables and their life-giving enzymes. In contrast to the standard American diet, raw vegan diets are overflowing with nutrients and low in the fats, sugars, and processed carbohydrates that contribute to expanding waistlines and have been linked to diseases from hypertension to diabetes. There are so very many reasons to celebrate raw foods, and, given the recent surge of culinary creativity in the raw food realm, even more to savor them. I'll leave you with a quick reference guide of my top 11 reasons to jump on the raw food bandwagon, whether it's for a temporary cleanse or a lifetime.
11 Reasons To Go Raw!
1) Energizing Enzymes
Raw food diets are bursting with enzymes, which are important for nearly every metabolic process in the body and which can get destroyed during the cooking process. Warming certain fruits and vegetables to no higher than 118 degrees can preserve enzymes and give them their greatest action potential.
A diet rich in raw fruits and veggies provides whopping amounts of antioxidants, which are important for protecting cells from free radical damage, especially in the eyes, heart, prostate, and skin. Studies show that those following a raw vegan diet have greater concentrations of antioxidants in their bloodstreams than omnivores.
3) Glowing Wellness
In survey research, those following a raw vegan diet report that they have a greater sense of overall wellness − including physical, social, and emotional − than they did on an omnivorous diet. Eating raw can truly make you feel fantastic and glowing inside and out!
4) Svelte Waistlines
Raw vegan diets are comparatively lower in calories and saturated fat than the standard American diet. Numerous studies have shown that raw vegan diets result in significant weight loss, which has abundant benefits for those who have weight-related health conditions. You'll undoubtedly whittle your waistline!
5) Kicking Chronic Disease
Autoimmune diseases such as fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis are difficult to treat, but multiple studies have shown that patients with these conditions who adopt a raw vegan diet experience symptom relief. Studies also suggest that chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol improve with a greater addition of raw fruits and vegetables to the diet.
6) Pain-Free Joints
Joint stiffness and pain are frequent complaints as we age and for those who have joint-related conditions including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. The improvements in joint pain and mobility seen in studies of raw food diets demonstrate that robust consumption of raw plant-based foods is ideal for healthy joints.
7) Happy Guts
Raw "living food" diets that include fermented foods rich in probiotic bacteria have a positive impact on the composition of the gut microflora. Keeping a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut is essential for smooth digestion and strong immunity. Research also suggests that raw diets' affect on the gut may decrease the risk of colon cancer.
Premature aging is the result of inflammatory states in the body. Since raw vegan diets have powerful anti-inflammatory effects, you may look and feel years younger. Also, raw vegan diets are low in glycotoxins, which are found in diets that include proteins and fats cooked at high temperatures and can lead to inflammation. Plus, all those powerful antioxidants in raw fruits and veggies will help keep your skin more elastic and less prone to wrinkles.
9) Dynamite Detox
Want to give your filtering organs like your livers and kidneys a rest? Try a raw vegan diet for a few days or a few weeks. The high fiber content will sweep out toxins from the gut, and your elimination system will get a break from filtering out all the unhealthy sugars, fats, and other junk present in the standard American diet. Plus, the bountiful nutrients in the raw fruits and veggies will restore your vitality!
10) Creative Cuisine
Raw vegan eating is becoming increasingly delicious! Check out raw vegan restaurants in your neighborhood − you'll be surprised at what chefs are up to these days. Get creative with a green smoothie (refer to the 40 green smoothie recipes in my book Health Bliss) loaded with your favorite veggies, nuts, fruits, and seeds. Try a few of my delicious, easy-to-prepare recipes in all of my cookbooks and on my website and you'll see just how easy and tasty it can be to eat a colorful, varied raw vegan diet.
11) Spiritual Benefits
Before concluding, I wanted to add in this final personal tip on how raw foods enrich my spiritual life. When I eat 85% or more raw food daily, I see wonderful benefits speedily taking place in my body, mind, and spirit. Doubt, fear, anger, loss of faith, guilt, and ego seem to fall away as I fine-tune my physical being with this raw “sun-food” diet. Raw foods actually change the vibrational rate of the cells and body and we become better receivers of higher energy. My meditations are more effortless, and I also feel deeper levels of peace than ever before. The typical American acid-producing diet of cooked food, without lots of fresh raw fruits and veggies, inhibits the flow of electrical energy. Eating this standard American diet on a daily basis, we experience lethargy, depression, and other challenging emotions. It’s a vicious circle that we can break out of simply by eating more raw foods. I often refer to eating more raw foods as Spiritual Nutrition.
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Books and Magazines
Alt, Carol. Easy, Sexy Raw: 130 Raw Food Recipes, Tools, and Tips to Make Your Feel Gorgeous and Satisfied. Clarkson Potter Publishers, 2012.
Alt, Carol and Giampapa, Vincent D., M.D. Younger Today: The Cell Solution to Youthful Aging and Improved Health. Basic Health Publications. 2014.
Davis, Brenda and Vesanto Melina. Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets. Book Publishing Co., 2010.
Hamshaw, Gina. Choosing Raw: Making Raw Foods Part of the Way You Eat. Da Capo Lifelong Books, 2014.
Billings, Tom. "On Fermented Foods/On the Definition of Living Foods." Living-Foods.com.
"Enzymes: The Type of Food That Will Slow Nearly Every Inflammatory Disease." Mercola.com. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/08/21/enzymes-special-report.aspx
"History of Raw Food in the US." Raw Life Coaching. http://www.rawlifecoaching.com/history-of-raw-food-in-the-us/
Hobbs, Suzanna Havala. "Raw Foods Diets: Review of the Literature." The Vegetarian Resource Group. http://www.vrg.org/journal/vj2002issue4/rawfoodsdiet.htm#25
Joyal, Steven MD. "Guard Your Precious Proteins Against Premature Aging." Life Extension Magazine. http://www.lef.org/magazine/2008/4/Guard-Your-Proteins-Against-Premature-Aging/Page-02
Piper, Tracy. "The Difference Between Raw Foods and Living Foods." KrisCarr.com. http://kriscarr.com/blog/the-difference-between-raw-foods-and-living-foods/
"Raw Foods Diet." Vegetarian-Nutrition.Info. http://www.vegetarian-nutrition.info/positions/english/raw-foods-diet.php
Shaw, Gina. "Is Your Diet Aging You?" WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/is-your-diet-aging-you
The Raw vs. The Cooked." UC Health. http://health.universityofcalifornia.edu/2010/04/14/the-raw-vs-the-cooked/
"The Rev. Sylvester (Graham Cracker) Graham: America's early fiber crusader." The Free Library.http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Rev.+Sylvester+%28Graham+Cracker%29+Graham%3A+America%27s+early+fiber...-a03660912
Agren, J. J., Tvrzicka, E., Nenonen, M. T., Helve, T., Hanninen, O. (2001). Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Nutrition, 85, 137-139.
Ganss, C., Schlechtriemen, M., Klimek, J. (1999). Dental erosions in subjects living on a raw foods diet. Caries Research, 33, 74-80.
Donaldson, M. S. (2000). Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets,nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 44, 229-234.
Donaldson, M. S. (2001). Food and nutrient intake of Hallelujah vegetarians. Nutrition & Food Science, 31(6), 293-304. http://dev.hacres.com/pdf/documents/research-nutrient-intake.pdf.
Douglass, J. M., Rasgon, I. M., Fleiss, P. M., Schmidt, R. D., Peters, S. N., Abelmann, E. A. (1985). Effects of a raw food diet on hypertension and obesity. Southern Medical Journal, 78(7), 841-844.
Fontana, L., Shew, J. L., Holloszy, J. O., & Villareal, D. T. (2005). Low bone mass in subjects on a long-term raw vegetarian diet. Archives of internal medicine, 165(6), 684-689.
Garcia, A. L., Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P. C., Strassner, C., Elmadfa, I., Katz, N., ... & Hoffmann, I. (2008). Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans. British journal of nutrition, 99(06), 1293-1300.
Hanninen, O., Kaartinen, K., Rauma, A. L., Nenonen, M., Torronen, R., Hakkinen, A. S., et al. (2000). Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology, 155, 45-53.
Kaartinen, K., Lammi, K., Hypen, M., Nenonen, M., Hanninen, O., Rauma, A. L. (2000). Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scandanavian Journal of Rheumatology, 29, 308-313.
Koebnick, C., Strassner, C., Hoffmann, I., Leitzmann, C. (1999). Consequences of a long-term raw food diet on body weight and menstruation: results of a questionnaire survey. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 43(2), 69-79.
Ling, W. H., Hanninen, O. (1992). Shifting from a conventional diet to an uncooked vegan diet reversibly alters fecal hydrolytic activities in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 122, 924-930.
Peltonen, R., Nenonen, M., Helve, T., Hanninen, O., Toivanen, P., Eerola, E. (1997). Faecal microbial flora and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet. British Journal of Rheumatology, 36, 64-68.
Rauma, A. L., Torronen, R., Hanninen, O., Verhagen, H., Mykkanen, H. (1995). Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 1221-2011.
Make the most of yourself, for that is all there is of you.
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
Health comes from the farm, not the pharmacy.
~ Fritzie, Susan's grandmother
A wise man should consider that health is the greatest of human blessings, and learn how by his own thought to derive benefit from his illnesses.
Keeping your body healthy is an expression of gratitude to the whole cosmos — the trees, the clouds, everything.
~ Thich Nhat Hanh
Health is worth more than learning.
~ Thomas Jefferson
A merry heart doeth good like a medicine, but a broken spirit dries the bones.
~ Proverbs 17:22
The best doctor give the least medicine.
~ Benjamin Franklin